The marginal tax rate is the tax rate that applies to your tax bracket.
The Canadian government uses a progressive income tax system, and the percentage of tax that you pay depends on your income bracket for the year.
There are multiple income tax brackets, with the tax rate progressively increasing as taxable income increases.
The tax brackets are generally adjusted every year due to factors such as inflation.
How is Marginal Tax Rate Calculated?
Federal Marginal Tax Rate for Personal Income
The Federal marginal tax rates for 2022 income earned is calculated as follows:
- 15% on the first $50,197 of taxable income,
- 20.5% on the portion of taxable income over $50,197 up to $100,392,
- 26% on the portion of taxable income over $100,392 up to $155,625,
- 29% on the portion of taxable income over $155,625 up to $221,708,
- 33% of taxable income over $221,708
For example, if your taxable income for 2022 is $80,000, your marginal tax rate will be 20.5%, and your income will be taxed as follows:
The first $50,197 will be taxed at 15% = $7,530
The next $29,803 will be taxed at 20.5% = $6,110
Total federal tax payable = $13,640 ($7,530 + $6,110)
For 2023, the tax brackets have increased due to indexation for inflation and other factors.
The new tax brackets for 2023 are:
- 15% on the first $53,359 of taxable income,
- 20.5% on the portion of taxable income over $53,359 up to $106,717,
- 26% on the portion of taxable income over $106,717 up to $165,430,
- 29% on the portion of taxable income over $165,430 up to $235,6751,
- 33% of taxable income over $235,675
Provincial Marginal Tax Rate for Personal Income
The Provincial tax rate you pay on your taxable income varies by province.
Except for Quebec, the provincial marginal tax rates for the provinces are calculated in a similar way to the federal marginal tax rates.
Based on your income bracket, the tax rate that applies to you increases for every portion that exceeds the next tax bracket.
For example, if you have to file your 2022 income tax and benefit return to the Ontario government, in addition to the federal tax rate, your provincial tax will be calculated as follows:
- 5.05% on the first $46,226 of taxable income,
- 9.15% on the portion over $46,226 up to $92,454
- 11.16% on the portion over $92,454 up to $150,000
- 12.16% on the portion over $150,000 up to $220,000
- 13.16% on the amount over $220,000
Based on the $80,000 taxable income example used above, the provincial tax paid to the Ontario government will be calculated as follows:
First $46,226 will be taxed at 5.05% = $2,334
The next $33,774 will be taxed at 9.15% = $3,090
Total Ontario provincial tax payable = $5,424 ($2,334 + $3,090)
Marginal vs Average Tax Rate
Your average tax rate is calculated as the total tax you pay divided by your total pre-tax income.
Using the federal tax example above, with a taxable income of $80,000 and total federal tax payable calculated as $13,640, your average tax rate is calculated using the formula:
Average federal tax rate = Total taxes paid / Total taxable income
Your federal average tax rate = 17.05%, that is ($13,640/$80,000)
While your federal average tax rate is 17.05%, your federal marginal tax rate is 20.5%.
You will remain in this marginal tax rate until your taxable income remains lower than $106,717.
Then, your new marginal tax rate will be 26%.
Marginal vs. Effective Tax Rate
Your effective tax rate is also calculated like an average tax rate.
Your effective tax rate takes into account the total tax you paid in the year to both the federal government and the provincial government.
Using the example above, the effective tax rate can be calculated as:
Federal tax payable: $13,640
Provincial tax payable for Ontario: $5,424
Taxable income: $80,000
Effective tax rate = ($13,640 + $5,424)/$80,000
Your 2022 effective tax rate = 23.83%
Frequently Asked Questions
- What is the highest marginal tax rate in Ontario?
The highest marginal tax rate in Ontario is 13.16% and it applies to taxable income over $220,000.
- What is the highest marginal tax rate in Canada?
The highest federal marginal tax rate in Canada is 33%, which in 2023 applies to the portion of taxable income over $235,675.